Damask rose flower specifications
Scientific name : Rosa damascena
- Order : Rosales
- Family : Rosaceae
- Genus : Rosa
- Species : R. damascena
- English names : tag-tsi meto, Persian rose, monthly rose, damask rose, York and loncoster rose
- German name : Roos, Damaszenerrose
- Native to the region : Mostly in Asia, with species in Europe, North America and Northwest Africa
Damask rose flower is the name of a type of rose from which roses are made. This species of rose has a high resistance to water shortage and grows well in large cities. Damask rose flower is a shrub with thorny flowering branches, cylindrical, without grooves and with compound combed leaves that have 3-5 cross-toothed petals.
Veins on the back of the leaf are distinct and tangled, leathery and ovate, pointed, 3-5 cm long, and on the leaves are smooth and green, and on the back they are pale green, and the petioles are furry and felt, with glandular hairs. O is covered and the flower is drawn to the end of the cup.
The flowers are bright pink with 32 identical pink petals that begin to appear in the early morning. There are 5 sepals, at least three of which have large appendages at the edges. There are 100 yellow flags in the flower arrangement.
The fruit, after the petals fall, is a round or ovoid flesh 1.5 cm long, which are located inside the jar-shaped protrusion under the petals. Damask rose flower has a color range from light and medium pink to light red.
This flower is native to the central mountains of Iran and Alborz. Damask rose flower has been cultivated in Iran for a long time, but since its extract and rose went to Europe from Damascus, Europeans called it the Rose of Damascus.
Damask rose flower is from the genus Rosacea and its consumable part is its dried or fresh flower and bud. Damask rose flower is called fragrant gold and the reason for this name is that it is the raw material of perfume making in perfume factories all over the world. It is also referred to as liquid gold because a kilo of it is worth $ 20 million.
There are mainly damask rose flower farms in 14 provinces of the country, and the highest area under damask rose flower cultivation in the country is in Fars, Isfahan, Markazi, Qom, Semnan, Kerman and East Azarbaijan provinces, respectively.
Damask rose flower in Iran
There are 13 native species of damask rose flowers in Iran. Damask rose flowers are harvested only once a year in Iran, but due to the four seasons in Iran, such flowers can be grown in most parts of Iran, and it is possible to scientifically improve the aroma and essence of those flowers. But tissue culture is necessary to preserve the endangered species of damask rose in Iran.
The cultivated areas of damask rose flower are mostly foothill areas and arid and semi-arid climates with mild and dry summers and cold winters.
Although damask rose flower grows in different climatic and natural conditions, but in terms of quality, it should be grown in a special environment where the summer and semi-arid climate is the best environment for the quality of its aroma.
This flower grows best in temperatures of 15 to 21 degrees. But if the temperature difference between day and night is 5 to 10 degrees, the flowers will be more fragrant.
At present, damask rose flowers are cultivated in 14 provinces of the country. The largest plain of damask rose flower in the world is located in the villages of Navayegan and Laizengan (Darab functions) with an area of about 5000 hectares where damask rose is cultivated by dry method.
The best and highest quality damask rose flowers are harvested in the fields of Kashan city in Barzak, Joshqan and Kamo, Niasar and Ghamsar districts and three dozen.
Other areas under damask rose flower cultivation include Kerman, Fars (Meymand), Isfahan (Kashan) and East Azarbaijan provinces, and in other provinces, cultivation is more scattered. Some countries have taken some native Iranian damask rose cultivars and modified and registered them in their name, such as Bulgaria and Afghanistan.
Damask rose flower export statistics
- Total export figure : $ 1,347,992,000
- Five-year growth rate of value of each unit : -18%
- One-year growth rate of value of each unit : -2%
Damask rose flower import statistics
- Total imports : $ 1,333,930,000
- Five-year growth rate of value of each unit : -17%
- One-year growth rate of value of each unit : -4%
Tariff of damask rose flower
Damask rose is known in the world customs with the customs tariff code ( HS Code ) number 121190 .
Countries exporting damask rose flowers
China is the world’s largest exporter of rosemary with 23% of the world market share in exports. India, Poland, Germany and Indonesia are next with 9, 7, 6 and 5 percent of the world’s exports, respectively. In import, this product of the United States has the highest import rate in the world with 12%. Germany and Japan are next in line to import this flower.
Countries with growth in damask rose flower imports
The export market of this product in Saudi Arabia and Poland has had a positive growth over the past one and five years. Vietnam, South Korea and France have also seen positive growth over the past year.
Export potential of destination countries
China, Germany, India, Italy, UAE, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Hong Kong China, Spain and Iraq have the most export potential damask rose flowers are in Asia. Russia is also a good export destination due to its good trade relations with Iran. Turkey, USA, France, Japan, Belgium, Canada and Qatar are also applying for this special flower.
Export capacity of damask rose flower
Countries with the potential to export damask rose flowers from Iran are China, India, Italy, Afghanistan, Indonesia, USA, Thailand and Malaysia. The markets of Germany, UAE, Pakistan, Spain, Iraq, Russia, Vietnam and France are saturated for the export of rosemary , and their choice can not be a good currency for exporters and wholesalers of rosemary .
The best destinations for damask rose flower exports from Iran are China, India and Italy due to the amount of export potential and the ease of trade relations between the two countries. Iran has the closest export link with Iraq. The US market has the highest demand capacity for this product. China shows the largest difference between the export potential and the real export in terms of value, the remaining export capacity is worth 847.0 thousand dollars.
Damask rose flower has many customers all over the world due to its many properties and applications in traditional medicine and perfume industry. The reasonable price of damask rose flowers has caused the purchase and sale of damask rose flowers for export to bring a lot of profits to the exporters and wholesalers of damask rose flowers, and through this, it will also help the country’s economy and currency.
Damask rose flower product
The main products of rosemary are rose, essential oil and dried petals, which are used in pharmaceutical, perfumery, health and cosmetic products and food industries.
Its medicinal uses are mostly in the treatment of rheumatic and heart pains, strengthening the nerves and stomach and relieving some headaches, and it is also used in the preparation of jam syrup and in the confectionery and ice cream industries.
Flower amber, as one of the products of rose water industry, is a black liquid that remains in the pot at the end of the distillation process along with the flower pulp and is suitable for muscle therapies.
The tail of dried petals is a therapeutic effect to strengthen the nerves, eliminate throat and mouth diseases. In India, rosemary wax, oil flower and sugar flower are produced. Annually, Iranian rose and essential oil are exported to the Persian Gulf countries and European countries, including France and the United Kingdom.
Damask rose flower is divided into several categories
- The first group of roses is called old or spring roses. This group of damask rose flowers has an appearance feature that also has pink petals. This group is the group that includes most of the damask rose flower farms that are cultivated in the world and especially in Iran. In fact, this is the type of damask rose flower that is cultivated by farmers.
- The second group of dahlias is called new or autumn dahlias. These flowers have a shrub structure and have red and pink petals. This group of damask rose flowers is clustered and their flower diameter sometimes reaches 9 cm. This type of damask rose flower grows mostly in warm areas with a lot of sun. This group is called autumn damask rose flowers because their flowering season is in autumn or late summer.
Flowering time of damask rose flower
Flowering time is from early May to early July. In each region, the flowering time takes 30-30 days. The flowers last for a maximum of one day, after which the bright pink color of the petals turns white, and with a slight breeze, the petals fill and fall off.
At this time, various traditional and industrial rose-picking workshops in all parts of the country, with distillation equipment, pick the flowers every morning, before the buds are fully open, and distill them with water vapor in different pots.
The resulting essential oil, which accumulates on the upper part of the fabric, is separated and kept away from light after dehydration in sealed jars. The essential oil is supplied in containers covered with felt. The remaining water from the distillation process is used as “rose” for various uses. About 3 kg of essential oil is obtained from every 3000 kg.
Propagation of damask rose flower plant
Damask rose flowers are propagated by seeds and vegetation.
Propagated by seeds
Car roses in their natural habitats are usually propagated by seeds. After the fruit ripens and opens, the seeds are scattered around and grow. The fruits of different species of roses usually ripen from mid-September to October. In seed propagation, when the color of these fruits is fried, they are picked and poured into a container and crushed.
After sieving, the seeds are dried and subjected to special treatments to increase their vigor. The treated seeds are planted in early autumn in rows 20 cm apart and 1 to 2 cm deep. With regular watering and weeding, the surface of the seedbed becomes green in early spring of the following year. The resulting seedlings can be transferred to the mainland from the early fall of the same year or the fall of the following year (depending on the size of the seedlings).
Propagation of damask rose flower by vegetative method is simpler and more economical compared to seed propagation and vegetative method is always used to propagate this plant.
Flower harvest is one of the most important, sensitive and costly factors in the production of damask rose flowers. The time of damask rose flower harvest in Kashan is from early June to mid-July. This takes 30-30 days in each area. Damask rose flower has a short duration on the branch after opening
If delayed, the color will turn white and fade within 24 hours. Therefore, it is necessary to harvest the open flowers daily before sunrise and preferably in cool morning weather
As the weather warms, the harvested flowers wither quickly. Due to the fact that the flowers are usually stored and compacted, fermentation activities are intensified
In addition, the activity of anthology workers slows down due to rising temperatures. For this reason, it is better for workers to rest in the middle of the day and limit picking work to the cool hours of the day
Uses of different types of damask rose flowers
The most common traditional use of rosemary is to prepare perfumes and roses. The resulting rose is blessed for washing and is also used in the gauze industry and the production of sweets, jams and jams. Preparing dried flowers to be kept in prayer rugs and to perfume small environments has been common since ancient times. It has several uses in the pharmaceutical sources of rose and rose essential oil.
Rose essential oil is one of the most famous perfumes that is widely used in perfumery and other cosmetic products as a fragrance. Most of damask rose flower essential oil is produced in the Balkans, France, Turkey, Morocco, Spain and Iran. For essential oils, anti-viral and anti-bacterial effects, antispasmodics, antiseptics, kidney and blood tonics, sedatives and many other effects have been mentioned.
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