Galbanum resin specifications
- Medicinal plant name : Galbanum
- Scientific name of the medicinal plant : Ferula gummosa
- Origin of medicinal plant : Iran
- Important species of galbanum : Ferula schair Borsez, Ferula galbaniflua Boiss, Ferula gummosa Boiss and Ferula rabri caulis Boiss
Galbanum resin : Galbanum is a perennial plant with a height of 2 meters and thick stems, cylindrical, without leaves, has many branches at the top and flowers with yellow petals, broad and oval fruits. The roots of this plant are similar to beets and are blackish brown in color. Galbanum leaves are similar to sycamore leaves. It has yellow flowers and the stem of the plant is narrow and cylindrical in shape.
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Galbanum resin gum is actually a sap that comes out of the plant stem due to insect bites and hardens in the presence of air and turns brown, greenish yellow or red. The sap inside the roots of this fragrant plant is thick and white, which turns yellow first and then red due to exposure to air .In industry, this sap is used to make glue, which is used to glue diamonds and precious stones.
Galbanum is also used in the cosmetics and cooking industries. This plant has been used for more than 3,000 years to relieve pain and disinfect wounds. This plant is very similar in appearance to asafoetida , but these two plants are different. The growth of this plant is from the age of five, it enters the reproductive stage by creating a flowering stem. Galbanum plant flowers and seeds only once in a lifetime and then dies.
The most important species of this genus is Ferula gummosa , the sap of which is common in Iran. Ferula gummosa is a perennial plant (3 to 10 years old) with a thick stem 1 to 2 meters high and its lifespan depends on the conditions. The ecology of the area is different. Galbanum plant is one of the important rangeland, medicinal and industrial plants and grows in mountainous and summer areas of Iran and generally grows in mountainous areas where most of the precipitation is in the form of snow.
Origin of galbanum resin plant
This plant is native to Iran and often grows in Central Asia, Afghanistan. In Iran, it grows in the mountainous regions of the north, center and west of the country, at altitudes of 1800 to 3000 meters above sea level. This plant is distributed in the provinces of Khorasan Razavi and Khorasan Shomali , Hamedan, Fars, Qazvin, Zanjan, Tehran, Arak and Mazandaran , in the areas around Damavand, between Tehran and Firoozkooh, Darreh Lar, Semnan, Kopeh Dagh between Quchan and Dargaz, Gardaneh Allah Akbar .
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Exports and prices of galbanum in Iran
In 2016, the value of exports of medicinal plants and their products was $ 17.4 billion and the value of imports was $ 18 billion. Export Gum and essential oil of galbanum gum can flourish due to various medicinal and industrial uses. Therefore, buying and selling galbanum has a high economic value for wholesalers and exporters of galbanum. However, in recent years, it has been endangered due to unprincipled exploitation and subsequent lack of revitalization of the galbanum plant. Galbanum resin
Factors affecting the selling price of galbanum gum
The selling price of galbanum sap depends on several factors. The first and most important thing is the type and quality of galbanum gum. The higher the percentage of gum essential oil, the higher the quality of galbanum gum. The selling price of galbanum is not fixed at all and fluctuates in some seasons of the year, which also depends on the supply and demand of the market.
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Types of galbanum gum
There are two different types of galbanum :
- Galbanum en larmes : The type of galbanum en larmes is yellowish white or greenish yellow or reddish and the size of an ordinary pea and if broken, it will be fragmented and brittle over time and after a while Comes round.
- Galbanum en sorte : Galbanum en sorte , which consists of irregular and pasty parts, is offered in pieces of different dimensions in the market and traditional medicine. It also varies in color is, often greenish, brownish green, yellowish green or dark green. The galbanum en sorte has a strong odor and a bitter, bitter, aromatic, biting and unpleasant taste.
The galbanum en larmes type is naturally secreted from the base of the stem and leaf of the mentioned plant due to insect bites or scratches, and the galbanum en sorte type, which is the same commercial and export type, is obtained by first soiling the base part of the stem they pull back from the plant and then make a gap in the collar area of 3 cm, where the sap quickly comes out of the slit and hardens. After a few days, the hardened sap is separated from the plant and exported abroad. In addition, some of it is used in traditional medicine.
Climatic conditions required by galbanum
This plant grows in high mountainous areas, where the rainfall is mostly in the form of snow, which begins in late November and lasts until late March, and from mid-March onwards, the rainfall is more in the form of normal early rains.
The glacial period of the rainy regions is long and starts from the beginning of December and continues until the end of March, and from the second half of April, the snow begins to melt in these areas. The average minimum temperature during the winter in these areas is -10 degrees Celsius and in summer the maximum temperature is 25 degrees Celsius will have.
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Suitable time for sowing the seeds of galbanum plant
Autumn is the best time to sow galbanum seeds in november and october, and if the seeds are sown in spring, they will not germinate in that year. Of course, a small percentage of seeds may germinate after one year and during a period of winter cold during the following year. Galbanum resin
Flowering and pollination of galbanum
Galbanum is a metamorphic plant whose pollen is transmitted in nature by insects and wind. The flowering stem of this plant appears in early June, due to environmental conditions, in early June.
Each plant has a flowering stem and its inflorescence is a compound umbrella, the height of the flowering stem varies from 0.5 to 3 meters. Ambient temperature during the flowering period varies between 10 and 25 degrees Celsius.
Production and harvesting of galbanum seeds
Each galbanum plant produces an average of 250 grams of seeds if not damaged by livestock. The seeds produced, because they are light, are easily dispersed by the wind in the surrounding environment and germinate in the next spring in suitable conditions. Galbanum resin
If the purpose of sowing galbanum is in an area other than its natural habitat, the seeds should be collected during August and stored in a dry and cool environment.
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- In the food industry, galbanum is used as a flavoring and fragrance.
- In the perfume industry, where galbanum is mostly used in these industries, it is used in the production of perfumes and essential oils.
- Other applications of galbanum gum can be used in the manufacture of cosmetics and in the preparation and production of a special adhesive called diamond adhesive.
Ways to identify galbanum and asafoetida plants
Asafoetida gum is very similar to galbanum in terms of smell and taste. To prevent fraud, using a drop of sulfuric acid, the color of asafoetida powder turns red or a drop of nitric acid turns asafoetida powder red. There are two simple ways to identify asafoetida from galbanum.
notice : This article translated by google form Persian language. If you have any question or need more information please contact us or add a comment at the bottom of this page.