Native flowers of Iran
Indigenous flowers of Iran are very diverse and attractive due to their special geographical location and topography. Iran is a country with four seasons and a diverse climate, this feature has caused biodiversity and plants in it.
In a way that it has become a habitat for different species of animals and plants and has created the ground for the growth of unique types of plants. For this reason, Iran is one of the rich countries and the main source of many native flowers and plants.
In fact, there are valuable resources of native plants in this country. In the following, we first provide explanations about Iran’s native flowers and its world trade. In general, native plants of Iran are in three categories of native trees of Iran, native herbaceous plants of Iran and native flowers of Iran.
Familiarity with native plants and flowers of Iran
The diversity of climates and climatic conditions in Iran has been the cause of biodiversity and vegetation in this country for four seasons. From north to south of Iran is full of these wonders and diversity of vegetation. Plants, like other living things, adapt to the climate and climatic conditions in which they live.
This adaptation goes so far as to make some plants specific to the area. Plants that are salty, for example, mean that they can survive at high salinity. These types of plants dominate the vegetation of desert areas of Iran.
Maybe some native plants of Iran can be propagated in other parts of the world, but this does not mean that the nature of their origin changes.
Native flowers of Iran
As we have said, the wide range of plant species and native flowers of Iran has made it different from other countries in the region. Every part of this country has its own climate and its own flowers and plants. The northern and southern foothills, on the one hand, have their own car plants. On the other hand, the desert and the central plateau, in turn, have grown saline plants.
There are also plains with good weather. To date, more than 2,500 species of plants and flowers have been identified in Iran. But unfortunately, serious research has been done on only a small part of these native plants. Also, the lack of necessary facilities and infrastructure has put many of these native plants in danger of extinction.
Today, many of the world’s ornamental flower trades are derived from native Iranian modified flowers. In fact, these distinctive flowers, which have amazed the world, go only wild and by car in their original habitat.
It is interesting to know that the global consumption of flowers and ornamental plants is estimated at around 150 billion Euros per year. For this reason, the trade in these plants has increased significantly in recent years.
Unfortunately, Iran’s share of this world trade is very small. However, if Iran’s indigenous capacity is addressed, commercialization capabilities and presence in global markets will be easily possible.
Lilium Ledebourii is the only rare species of native Iranian flowers of the genus Lilium that is often grown in northern Iran in the provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran, Ardabil and also parts of Azerbaijan. But its main habitat is Damash village of Rostamabad, Gilan.
The height of this Iranian flower is between 50 to 150 cm. Flowering time is usually in June and lasts about two months. The Lilium Ledebourii usually flowers between 4 and 10 flowers. But it seems that examples of this strange flower with more than 15 flowers have also been seen.
The flowers usually bloom together within 7 cm of this flower. Many people believe that this type of lily shines at night and that is why it is called chandelier. Others have attributed its name to the similarity with the chandelier.
Today, only a small number of this strange and endangered plant remain in Iran. For this reason, they have been protected by the environment with strict measures.
Lilium Ledebourii was first introduced in 1975 in the book Flora Shargh and since then it has been nationally registered in the list of environmental monuments of the country. In fact, Lilium Ledebourii is the only national flower of Iran that has been registered as a national monument.
Fritillaria is one of the native Iranian herds that has played a significant role in the rich history of this country. This unique flower is a genus of lilies that grows downwards unlike other flowers.
The fritillaria has a very short lifespan of less than one month a year. The main habitat of this mythical flower is in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains and the provinces of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Isfahan and Lorestan. So far, more than 60 species of this flower have been identified, of which 15 species are also grown in Iran.
But among these, only 4 species of Fritillaria.persica, Kurdish fritillaria, Turkish fritillaria and Fritillaria.imperialis are native to Iran.
Sternbergia is one of the bulbous plants belonging to the narcissus genus, whose main habitat is located in Central Asia and the native Mediterranean. This plant has 7 different species that extend from southwestern Europe to southwestern Asia. Of course, of these seven species, only the species of Sternbergia clusiana , Sternbergia lutea and Sternbergia fischeriana are native flowers of Iran.
The main habitat of this plant is in the northern and western provinces of the country. The golden flowers of the sternbergia and the time of flowering in autumn have made it one of the most unique plants. Of course, two species of this plant flower in autumn and one of them flowers in spring. The flowers of the sternbergia are about 4 cm in diameter and often grow singly.
Each onion of this plant produces two to three separate flowers. Although the flowers are often yellow, species of this plant with white flowers have also been seen. The yellow flowers of the Sternbergia are very similar to the saffron flower.
Crocus sativus is one of the other native flowers of Iran and belongs to the Iridaceae family, which is known as the red gold of Iran. The historical roots of crocus sativus go back to Iran and today it is sold as the most expensive spice in the world.
To use crocus sativus, the stigma and cream of the plant are collected and dried, and then the intoxicating color, aroma and taste are used in various foods. Of course, the medicinal properties of this valuable plant should not be overlooked.
However, the main habitat of crocus sativus is in temperate and tropical regions. But it has been identified in cold cities such as Hamedan and even Gilan. Payer is the season to harvest crocus sativus. This original Iranian plant has a great export value. In fact, today about 90% of the world’s saffron exports belong to Iran.
Another Iranian herd that originates in Iran is crocus gilanicus. This flower, as its name suggests, is specific to the Gilan region. This flower is from the crocus family and is very similar in appearance to ordinary crocus, with the difference that the petals of this plant are white and this flower changes to a very light purple during aging.
Iris is a genus of historical fragrant plants known for about 300 different flowering species. This beautiful flower often grows in alkaline and light soils and has a special place in Zoroastrian mythology. Among the different species of lilies, there is a species called Persian Iris or Nowruz flower, which is one of the native flowers of Iran and is in the category of rhizome bearded iris.
The main habitat of this flower is spread in northern Iran and from Sari to Mazandaran. Persian iris often grows in June at the hillside of mountains and among rocks. That is why it is often seen at high altitudes. Persian iris is a short plant with about 10 cm in height and smooth leaves with a width of 5 to 15 mm.
The height of yellow and beige flowers is often up to 5 cm. These flowers are available in different tonnages and are often combined with white. A beautiful inflorescence can be seen at the end of it, which has doubled its charm. Persian iris and its differences with other types of irises were discovered by an Italian tourist named Pollack.
Cyclamen persicum flower with 23 different species of flowers native to the Caucasus, the Mediterranean and Iran and from the genus Primroses. Cyclamen persicum is one of the most famous types of indigo flowers and one of the native flowers of Iran that grows in winter in the northern provinces of the country.
Iranian primrose has different colors such as red, white, pink, brown, red and purple, which are placed upside down between its broad and heart-shaped leaves. This plant is often found at the foot of deciduous trees.
Viola is a plant of the violet genus that is native to Europe and northwestern Asia and grows mostly in temperate regions. This spring flower with a combination of purple and yellow colors, has more than 500 different species, 19 of which have been identified as native flowers of Iran.
Native Iranian viola species are mostly grown by car in humid and mountainous areas such as the northern, northwestern and western provinces of Iran. Of course, species of violas have also been seen in the Persian Gulf in white and light purple. Although violas are often identified with purple, different varieties have been observed in yellow, white, purple, and so on.
Viola is a fragrant perennial plant that is planted in late summer and blooms from late winter to late spring. Since this beautiful flower is also planted in winter, it is also known as flower under snow. To see these beautiful ornamental monocots, follow the margins of streams and the feet of damp, shady trees.
In addition to the interesting scenery that it creates in parks and terraces, viola also have various medicinal uses.
Orchids are a large and universal genus of asparagus that with more than 850 genera and 17,000 species are actually the second largest genus of flowering plants. orchids are very important among valuable export goods. In such a way that it can compete with oil exports in profitability.
According to the Minister of Jihad for Agriculture, every 5 orchid pots can be as profitable for the country as a barrel of oil. Orchids often grow in tropical areas and humid forests. In northern Iran, there are different types of wild orchid species, among which we can mention the bee orchid.
This beautiful and expensive flower, which is one of the few Iranian orchids, is one of the native flowers of Iran in the village of Kojoor, Mazandaran province.
One of the amazing features of a bee orchid is how it is pollinated. In fact, the bee orchid transforms itself into a female bee for pollination, thus attracting the male bee. In this way, the pollen attaches to the male bee and is transferred to other flowers.
Another Iranian rose, known as Damask rose as is a genus of the Rosa and rosaceae family that has its main habitat in the Middle East, Europe and Russia. So far, more than 20,000 species of roses have been identified and named, and other species of this fragrant flower are still identified annually around the world.
Today, rose essential oil is widely used in the perfume industry as well as in food products such as tea and jam. For this reason, it has the most expensive essential oil in the world. In fact, each gram of rose essential oil is priced at one gram of gold in the world market.
Persian rose is one of the native flowers of Iran that has yellow and sometimes red fragrant flowers. How Iranian roses reproduce naturally is non-pollination.
For this reason, there is a red area between the yellow flowers that attracts insects with a color contrast. The height of the Persian rose often reaches 50 to 60 cm and the diameter of the flowers is about 3 cm.
About 140 years ago, the bases of this beautiful flower were sent to Luxembourg Park in Paris for propagation. This led to the reproduction of this plant in Europe. Today, almost all of the world’s rose trade is accounted for by the Netherlands.
Muscari chalusicum or Chalus grape hyacinth
Muscari chalusicum or Grape hyacinth is a monocotyledonous bulbous plant that belongs to the genus Asparagus. About 40 different species of this plant have been identified in the Mediterranean so far. 7 species of which are also grown in Iran.
Muscari chalusicum have clustered flowers at the end of the stem and are seen in the color spectrum of purple and blue in combination with red. Muscari chalusicum is one of the rare types of native flowers of Iran.
Its main habitat, as its name implies, is in the Chalous Valley. To see this rare flower, you have to go to the height of 300 to 1100 meters of Chalous rocks in March and April. From each onion of this rare flower, only one flower grows, which sometimes reaches a height of 30 cm.
Erythronium caucasicum violet is a monocotyledonous onion herb belonging to the genus lilies . There are about 25 different species of erythronium caucasicum in Europe, temperate Asia and North America.
But the erythronium caucasicum flower is the only member of this family that grows as one of the native flowers of Iran in the heights of beech forests and north of the Alborz mountain range. The flowering time of this rare plant is in January and April.
Erythronium caucasicum have large, inverted flowers that have a bell-shaped base 10 to 15 cm high. After a while, the flowers turn into multi-seeded capsules, which are actually the fruit of this beautiful flower. The two petals with brown spots adorn and protect these beautiful flowers.
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