Rose flower specifications
- Scientific name : Rosa
- Order : Rosales
- Family : Rosaceae
- Subfamily : Rosoideae
- Tribe : Roseae
- Genus : Rosa
The rose flower belongs to the Rosaceae family. These plants are found in most parts of the world and differ in terms of how the plant grows and forms and produces flowers. Trading and selling rose buds has become a lucrative business. Consumption of this flower is in the form of tea, flower oil, rose essential oil.
In the world, roses are by far the most popular type of flowering shrubs. The Rosa genus includes more than 300 species of woody flowering perennials, encompassing several thousand varieties cultivated over centuries. While there are native roses found in nearly every continent, most varieties grown in landscapes are multi-generational hybrid cultivars for which the original species ancestors have long since been forgotten. When you buy a modern rose variety, it is almost always sold by a unique cultivar name rather than by a species name.
The characteristics of a particular rose variety can only be fully understood by considering the rose class in which it falls. There are many ways to classify roses, but the most common is the system now used by the American Rose Society, which uses the following categories. Here is the ultimate guide to exploring each one.
The petals of this flower are also used in various industries such as :
- Perfume and cologne industry
- Chocolate industry
- Production of food colors
- Cosmetics industry
- Produces fragrances and air fresheners
- Luxurious party and event design
The 3 Main Rose Categories
While there are many varieties of roses, most rose specialists would divide them into three categories: Old Garden Roses, Wild Roses and Modern Roses. Most of what you’ll find today in gardens are considered Modern Roses, which were bred to bloom large blooms continuously throughout the season, unlike an Old Garden Rose.
Within these three main categories listed above are a countless variety of roses. However, below are some of the more common ones you can find, along with their benefits and unique blooming features.
Modern Roses were bred after 1867, taking the place of heritage Old Garden Roses. As mentioned above, there are certain distinctions between the two. Where Old Garden Roses bloom once per year, Modern Roses offer a continuous bloom, as well as a larger bloom size. Florists and homeowners will love Modern Roses for their longer vase life, too. The only disadvantage to these Modern Roses is that they typically lack a robust heady fragrance and are less hardy and disease-resistant.
Type : Modern Rose
Varieties of climbing roses are types of rose shrubs that have long flexible stems. One of the beauties of climbing roses is that they bloom throughout the summer and fall.
These climbing roses can grow to around 20 ft. (6 m) and provide height and color in any garden. Unlike climbing vines, roses in this category don’t climb by sticking to walls or trellises. You need to attach the woody vines to surfaces to help them climb. When in full bloom, climbing roses can look spectacular with masses of pink, red, white, or yellow flowers.
Some notable climbing rose cultivars :
- ‘ Blaze ’ is a stunning climbing rose variety with deep red showy rose flowers that bloom from spring until fall.
- ‘ Eden ’ with its delightful pink flowers can turn any wall, trellis, or structure into a sea of pinks.
- ‘ Cecile Brunner ’ has clusters of small light-pink flowers and exhibits vigorous climbing ability. This is also a type of polyantha rose.
- ‘ Iceberg ’ is a climbing rose cultivar with massive white ruffled flowers and grows up to 15 ft. (4.5 m) high.
Hybrid Tea Roses
Type : Modern Rose
Hybrid tea roses are one of the most popular classes of roses, and it’s not hard to understand why. With bountiful, ornate blooms that sprout from long stems and reach anywhere from 30-50 petals, the hybrid tea rose creates a dazzling display in any garden. And horticulturists have had quite the field day with them, breeding thousands of hybrid varieties. Outdated hybrids make way for the new on a constant basis.
Some notable hybrid tea roses :
- Rosa ‘ Peace ’ is an award-winning rose with large fragrant pink and yellow flowers.
- Rosa ‘ Double Delight ’ has multi-colored red and white petals with a slightly ruffled look.
- Rosa ‘ Chrysler Imperial ’ is a beautiful example of a romantic red rose with citrus scents and double flowers.
- Rosa ‘ Full Sail ’ is a type of white rose that blooms from spring until fall and has a wonderful sweet scent.
- Rosa ‘ Tropicana ’ has large showy coral colored flowers with strong scent.
- Rosa ‘ Papa Meilland ’ has dark fragrant red large flowers that bloom over summer and early autumn.
- Rosa ‘ Dark Night ’ has dark red large flowers with pale yellow underside petals.
- Rosa ‘ Apricot Candy ’ has double apricot-coral flowers. This beautiful rose shrub blooms from spring to autumn.
- ‘ Black Baccara ’ hybrid tea rose is a type of black rose flower – it has gorgeous black-tinged burgundy-red petals.
Shrub roses are in a classification of roses that don’t fit into the other groups of modern roses. In general, shrub roses are hardy rose varieties and can include species of roses that bloom once a year or are repeat-flowering hybrids. Usually, shrub roses produce many clusters of flowers on each plant.
Shrub roses can grow to between 5 and 15 ft. ( 1.5 – 4.5 m ).
Some notable shrub rose cultivars :
- ‘ Fruhlingsgold ’ is a flowering rose shrub that produces a mass of yellow and white flower clusters.
- ‘ Molineux ’ rose could also be classed as a David Austin rose. The yellow showy blooms have a slight musky Tea Rose scent.
- ‘ Swany ’ rose shrubs are a low-growing rose variety that is great for ground cover. Expect to get numerous white rose flowers on this cultivar.
Miniature and Miniflora
If you are looking for beautiful roses to grow indoors, then any of the miniature species of roses are great. These cultivars resemble hybrid tea roses but are just miniature versions. You can also plant “miniflora” roses along borders or edges in gardens.
Most miniature rose bushes grow to between 6” and 36” (15 – 91 cm) high and have small, perfectly formed rose-shaped flowers. Because these varieties of houseplant roses are descended from outdoor cultivars, they need periods of cold to survive. Some species of miniature roses are single blooming and others are repeat bloomers.
Some notable miniature rose cultivars :
- ‘ Cupcake ’ is a repeat-blooming type of miniature rose shrub with pink flowers.
- ‘ Petite de Hollande ’ is a beautiful example of a compact mini rose that has beautiful pink flowers.
- ‘ Stars and Stripes ’ has clusters of small red and white patterned petals.
- ‘ Autumn Splendor ’ produces stunning miniature flowers with two-toned orange and red petals.
Rambler roses are similar to climbing roses but are a different classification. The difference between species of rambler roses and climbing roses is their height and blooming habits. Rambler roses can grow up to 30 ft. (9 m) tall but they only bloom once in the season. However, some new rambler rose cultivars are available that are repeat bloomers.
When rambler roses bloom in late spring and early summer, the effect is truly spectacular. Rambler roses produce large showy clusters of small compact flowers with up to 20 per stem.
Some notable rambling rose cultivars :
- Rosa filipes ‘ Kiftsgate ’ is a vigorous climbing rose cultivar with beautiful white, jasmine-type flowers. One specimen is said to be the largest rose in England and is 50 ft. (15 m) high and 80 ft. (24 m) wide!
- ‘ Gardenia ’ is a hardy rambler rose cultivar with bushy pale-yellow flowers and a wonderful sweet scent. This is a repeat blooming cultivar.
- ‘ Adelaide d’Orleans ’ has delicate clusters of small pale pink buds that open to white blooms.
- ‘ Dorothy Perkins ’ is a popular type of rambler rose with large clusters of pink blooms.
- ‘ Princesse Louise ’ has pale pink buds that open to ruffled white blooms.
read more : Iran medicinal plants
Tree roses are a spectacular type of rose bush that look like a small flowering tree. The tree rose is developed by grafting a rose bush to the top of a long rose cane. Some rose growers graft 2 or 3 different rose bushes to create stunning floral displays.
Tree roses are eye-catching shrubs in any garden. The beautiful rose bush sits on top of the “tree trunk” and lets you admire some of the most beautiful flowers in a garden at eye level. Many miniature species of roses also make good tree roses.
Rose cultivars classed as polyantha roses produce clusters of small rose flowers from spring until fall. Flowers on polyantha roses generally measure 1” (2.5 cm) in diameter and are usually pink, red, or white. It is not uncommon for some rose shrubs to have blooms on them for the whole season.
One of the reasons why polyantha roses are some of the most popular types of roses is the fact that they are low-maintenance and very hardy garden plants.
Some notable polyantha rose cultivars :
- ‘ Gruss an Aachen ’ has light-peach-colored petals that form rosette-shaped double flowers.
- ‘ The Fairy ’ is a type of rose with light-pink to white flowers. The tightly packed flowerhead may contain 25 or more petals.
- ‘ Happy Rose ’ have cherry red small flowers.
- ‘ Cecile Brunner ’ have pale pink fragrant blooms that repeat flowering during summertime.
Floribunda roses are identified by their many clusters of stunning flowers and have a distinct bushy appearance. This is described as a ‘free-flowering’ type of rose species due to the abundance of blooms it produces. Floribunda roses have variety of colors including purple, orange, yellow, white, and pink.
Floribunda roses are cultivated by crossing Polyantha roses with Hybrid Teas. This produces hardy species of rose bushes that are easy to care for. Due to their vigorous flowering habits, floribundas are often chosen for landscaping and beautifying public parks.
Some notable floribunda rose cultivars :
- ‘ Iceberg ’ gets its name due to the abundance of pure white floribunda rose flowers. This floribunda rose is also cultivated as a climbing rose.
- ‘ Anne Harkness ’ has beautiful creamy-pink petals with a darker red center.
- ‘ Hot Cocoa ’ rose flowers have chocolate-orange petals that look stunning in gardens or vases.
- ‘ Tuscan Sun ’ has apricot-orange flowers in small clusters that bloom throughout the season.
- ‘ Honey Bouquet ’ has beautiful yellow fragrant large flowers.
Ground Cover Roses
As the name suggests, ground cover roses are low-growing species of roses that are also easy to maintain. Usually, rose cultivars in the ground-cover category grow to between 1 and 3 ft. (30 – 90 cm) tall. These landscaping roses are perfect to provide plenty of color for your garden along with fragrant scents and green foliage.
Some notable ground cover rose cultivars :
- ‘ Avon ’ has brilliant white flowers in an open form and pretty bronze-yellow center.
- ‘ Flower Carpet Coral ’ roses have pretty coral-colored wispy flowers that create the fragrant flowerhead.
David Austin Roses ( English Roses )
David Austin is a famous rose breeder who has created some of the most stunning English roses. Although this is not a separate classification, David Austin roses are now world-famous. Rose cultivars in this category were grown to have the best features from Modern and Old roses.
Over the 50 years that David Austin has been breeding roses, over 240 new cultivars have been created. These English roses are winter hardy and disease resistant. David Austin English roses are well-known for their large showy fragrant flowers and beautiful pastel shades.
What is special about David Austin roses? They have the wonderful fragrance of Old Roses and the hardiness and vigorous flowering habits of modern roses.
Some notable David Austin rose cultivars :
- ‘ Benjamin Britten ’ is a type of English rose with striking crimson-red flowers and double blossoms.
- ‘ Charlotte ’ is a hardy English rose cultivar with exquisite showy butter-yellow and white flowers. Each flower packs as many as 100 petals!
- ‘ Gentle Hermione ’ rose has fluffy large flowers that are pale pink and smell wonderful.
- ‘ Darcy Bussell ’ is a fast growing rose with masses of deep red-crimson fragrant blooms.
- ‘ Harlow Carr ’ has pink flowers with strong scent that bloom from early summer until fall.
- ‘ Munstead Wood ’ has stunning dark red-crimson blooms with strong scent.
The classification of Grandiflora roses includes roses that are crosses between hybrid teas and floribundas. The rose name Grandiflora comes from the fact that this species is larger in size than floribunda roses. Some of the larger cultivars can reach heights of up to 8 ft. (2.4 m).
Since the 1980s, Grandiflora roses are no longer as popular as they once were. Most people choose roses from the hybrid tea or floribunda categories for their gardens.
Some notable Grandiflora rose cultivars :
- ‘ Love ’ is an appropriate name for this large red rose with its delicate white shades in the center.
- ‘ Cherry Parfait ’ looks stunning due to the brilliant white petals and reddish edging.
- ‘ Dream Come True ’ has amazing rose-shaped flowers with soft orange, pink, and red multicolored petals.
- ‘ Queen Elizabeth ’ is the classic Grandiflora rose and has a beautifully formed elegant flower that is a pretty shade of pink.
Old Garden Roses
Old garden roses are classified as any type of rose that was cultivated or existed before 1867 when the first modern rose was created. Roses in the ‘old garden’ category are also referred to as heritage or historic roses.
The identifying features of old garden roses are their intense fragrance and large showy double blooms. Traditionally, old garden roses were single bloomers but in the 1800s newer repeating bloomers were cultivated. Old Garden Roses are classified into a number of groups. Here are descriptions of these groups of heritage roses :
Alba rose flower
One of the oldest types of rose hybrids and they bloom in the late spring or early summer. Expect to get beautiful white and pink showy flowers from Alba roses.
Bourbon rose flower
Roses in the ‘Bourbon’ category have large ruffled pink blooms that have a wonderful fragrance and bloom repeatedly. These are also among the category of climbing roses.
Tea rose flower
Tea roses originated in China and are characteristic of having a delightful tea scent. These roses are repeat bloomers but are not cold hardy and prefer warmer climates.
Gallica rose flower
Roses in the Gallica classification bloom just once in the season. They produce some of the best examples of Old Garden Roses that have maroon, purple, magenta, crimson, or red color.
Damask rose flower
This ancient rose category gets its name from Damascus in the Middle East. Some Damask rose cultivars bloom in the summer and some bloom in the fall. There are also some varieties that are repeat bloomers.
Centifolia Roses ( Provence Roses )
Also called Cabbage Roses, Centifolia roses have very large flowerheads that resemble a cabbage. Usually, the attractive rose flowers are in various shades between white and dark pink. Because of their intense fragrance, they are often used to create rose scents.
Chinese rose flower ( Rosa chinensis )
Species of old garden Chinese roses are often viewed as the main parent of modern cultivars. These repeat bloomer roses helped develop many of the modern roses that continue flowering from spring until fall.
Heritage Noisette roses were important types of roses to develop yellow and orange cultivars. Their large fragrant flowers continually bloom throughout the season.
One of the attractive features of Moss roses is the woody scent they give off. These roses produce a wide variety of showy colorful flowers and are some of the most beautiful Old Garden rose hybrids.
Ancient Hybrid Roses
There are a number of ancient hybrid rose varieties that are technically not classified in the Old Garden Rose category. However, most lists of rose categories classify some hybrids from the late 1800s along with other heritage and historic roses.
- Hybrid Musk Roses produce clusters of simple flowers each with 5 petals. The name of this rose group comes from the strong musky smell the flowers emit. Musk rose hybrids are prized for their dense green foliage.
- Hybrid Perpetual Roses were some of the first hybrids in the West to be cultivated as “reblooming hybrids.” This rose group includes many ancient rose cultivars from other categories that were cultivated to be repeat bloomers.
- Hybrid Rugosa Roses is another category of rose that are grouped with Old Garden Roses but are newer hybrids. These repeat-blooming roses are extremely fragrant and have showy double flowers.
- Bermuda “ Mystery ” Roses are an important group of roses due to the fact they grow in tropical countries but are resistant to disease. This makes these roses important for cultivating hardy, disease-resistant new breeds. They are called “mystery” roses as the names of the rose species aren’t known.
Species Roses ( Wild Roses )
“Species roses” is the botanical name for roses that grow naturally in the wild and are not the result of hybridization or cultivation. Usually, all types of Species Rose are single bloomers and have simple flowers with 5 petals. rose flower
Wild roses are good to grow in your garden if you want a hardy, low-maintenance plant. In fact, some gardeners say that wild roses seem to thrive on neglect rather than care and attention. They generally have a spreading nature and produce pretty pink flowers when they bloom in spring and early summer.
Some popular types of Species Roses for your garden include :
- Musk Rose (Rosa maschata)
- Scots Rose (Rosa pimpinellifolia)
- Lady Banks’ Rose (Rosa banksiae)
- Sweetbriar Rose (Rosa rubiginosa)
- Rosa moyesii – a wild rose species that blooms in the fall
Rose bud harvest season
The rose harvest season begins in spring and early May , when it should not see much light because it causes it to turn yellow.
Which countries import rose flower from Iran ?
- Country Australia
The main centers of cultivation and production of rose buds in Iran
- East Azerbaijan
- Kashan is one of the functions of Isfahan province
Wholesale sales of rose buds for export in domestic and foreign markets
Roses grown in Iran have a desirable quality and in accordance with international standards, so this product has been able to enter global markets. One of the main buyers of dried rose petals is Turkey, which re-exports it to different countries.
Another buyer of this product is Germany, which is the leading producer of cosmetics in the world. The rose trade and its export are very valuable for Iran. Because in addition to high quality, a much lower price is allocated for its production, so it has many applicants from around the world.
Rose customs tariff
Rose bud is under the tariff line 0631100.
Export Iran dried rose bud prices
The rose bud belongs to the rosacea family and its characteristics include adaptation to dry climates. Cultivation of this product is done in rainfed, irrigated, organic.
The organic nature of the product means that no toxins or fertilizers are used in its production and there will be no addition of toxins in health tests. The organic type of rose bud has a higher quality in terms of color and aroma and therefore will be more expensive than other types.
In addition to its decorative aspect, dried rose bod flower has many usages in traditional medicine and pharmacy. The reasonable price of dried rose bod flowers has caused the sale and purchase of dried rose bud flowers for export to bring great profits to the exporters and wholesalers of dried rose bud flower , and in this way, it will also help the country’s economy and currency.
What factors determine the appropriate price of export rose buds ?
- Type of packaging of export goods
- Quality of goods
- Quantity and amount of order
- Place of loading goods
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