Chamomile flower specifications
- Scientific name : Matricaria chamomilla
- Order : Asterales
- Family : Asteraceae
- Genus : Chamaemelum
- Species : C. nobile
- English name : Common chamomile, German chamomile
- French name : C. commune, Camomille d ’Allemagne, Matricair camomille
- German name : Gemeine Kamille, Echte – kamille, Kamille
- Italian names : Antemide, Capomilla, Matricaria, Camomilla
- Native : Mediterranean region, Asia Minor, Europe, West Asia, North Africa, North and South America and Australia.
Dried chamomile flower : Chamomile is one of the oldest medicinal plants known to man and is scientifically known as Matricaria Chamonail. Among the various types of chamomile, the Roman chamomile type is more famous. The scientific name of this plant is Chamaemelum nobile and it has a fragrant smell that grows in meadows and sandy soils.
The stem is whitish green, the leaves are small, alternate and have narrow, irregular, hairy hairs. The height of this plant varies between 30 to 70 cm and its stem has branches, each of which leads to capitulas 1.5 to 2 cm in diameter.
The flowers of chamomile plant are composed of two types of tabular and tubular florets and are observed at the end of the stem. The lateral petals of the tongue are white and their number is different and between 12 to 18 in each flower and these florets are considered female sexually. The diameter of chamomile flowers varies and varies between 1.5 to 3 cm.
One of the characteristics of German chamomile flowers that distinguishes it from other species with similar flowers is the presence of empty space between the flowers.
So that if the flowers are cut longitudinally, empty space can be seen between them, while this space is not seen in other plant species. In addition, chamomile flowers will be conical when they open and develop.
Chamomile flower is a native plant of the Mediterranean region, but its origin has been reported in Asia Minor. Of course, this plant is widely distributed today in Europe, West Asia, North Africa, North and South America and Australia.
In Iran, different species of matricaria grow in different parts of the country, but the genus Matricaria chamomile is found in the western region of Lorestan between Khorramabad and Doroud, northwest of Andimeshk, in Khuzestan, Salehabad Haftgol, Shushtar, Shiraz, Iranshahr and around Tehran. . Crop production of this product in the country is mainly done in the provinces of Isfahan, Shiraz, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Golestan and Hamedan.
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Types of chamomile
Some commonly used species include :
- Matricaria chamomilla Often called “German chamomile” or “Water of Youth”
- Chamaemelum nobile, Roman, English or garden chamomile, also frequently used (C. nobile Treneague is normally used to create a chamomile lawn).
A number of other species’ common names include the word “chamomile”. This does not mean they are used in the same manner as the species used in the herbal tea known as “chamomile”. Plants including the common name “chamomile”, of the family Asteraceae, are :
- Anthemis arvensis, corn, scentless or field chamomile
- Anthemis cotula, stinking chamomile
- Cladanthus mixtus, Moroccan chamomile
- Chamaemelum nobile, Roman Chamomile
- Cota tinctoria, dyer’s, golden, oxeye, or yellow chamomile
- Eriocephalus punctulatus, Cape chamomile
- Matricaria discoidea, wild chamomile or pineapple weed
- Tripleurospermum inodorum, wild, scentless or false chamomile
How to distinguish Roman chamomile from German
One difference between Roman and German chamomile is their leaves. The gray-green leaves of Roman chamomile are thicker than the leaves of German chamomile. Another distinguishing feature is the stem, the stem of the Roman chamomile is slightly hairy, while the German chamomile has smooth stems.
Chamomile planting time and intervals
The best time to plant chamomile is in the second half of September for autumn planting and the second half of March for spring planting. Planting time plays a major role in chamomile flower yield.
Export of chamomile plant in Iran
Export of dried chamomile flower to European countries has increased foreign customers for this product. Dried chamomile is exported to Turkey, Iraq and Germany in suitable packaging.
Countless medicinal plants, including chamomile, have high exports in the country because Iran, due to its favorable climate, is the cradle of medicinal plants and plants produced in the country are of high quality.
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Dried chamomile flower , in addition to its decorative aspect, has many applications in traditional medicine and pharmacy. The reasonable price of chamomile dried flowers has caused the purchase and sale of chamomile dried flowers for export to bring great profits to the exporters and wholesalers of chamomile dried flowers, and in this way, it will also help the country’s economy and currency.
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